Home Life The History and Evolution of the Banking System in India

The History and Evolution of the Banking System in India


There was no awful term as ‘banking’ before the year1640, although the safekeeping and protection method sprouted in the temple of Babylon as ahead as 2000 B.C. Chanakya, in his Arthashastra composed in about 300 B.C., remembered the life of powerful unions of seller bankers who obtained securities, advanced loans, and handed out hundreds. The Jain scripts illustrate the terms of two bankers who built the famous Delaware Temples of Mount Abu during 1197 and 1247 A.D.

The Banking procedure of the country is the root of the economy and financial growth of the country. It is the vastly governing portion of the nation’s economic sector as it is believable for more than 70 % of the accounts streaming through the monetary region in the nation.

The Banking Process in the Nation is Categorized Under 3 Primary Category These are as follows:-

  1. Procedures of Payment policy
  2. keeper and depositors of people’s savings
  3. The problem of loans to particular peoples and Corporations
  4. The Banking system in the nation can be classified into two stages
  5. Pre-Independence Phase (1786-1947)
  6. Post- Independence Phase (1947 to present)
  7. Pre-independence phase(1786-1947)

The heritage of the Banking strategy in India can be outlined as the organization of the Bank of Calcutta in 1786. Banking in India started in the earlier decade in the 18th century with the English Agency buildings in Bombay and Calcutta.

Post-Independence Phase(1947- Present)

The post-Independence term can be divided into the following three phases-

  1. Pre-nationalization Period (1947 to 1969)
  2. Post nationalization Period (1969 to 1991)
  3. Liberalization Period (1991 to till date)

At the time of independence, the whole Banking region was under special holding. The country’s rural community had been hanging on to small cash lenders for their rules and regulations. To work out these problems and decent growth of the economy, India nationalized the Reserve Bank of India in 1949. Imperial Bank of India in 1955 was nationalized and appointed the State Bank of India. In 1949 The Banking Regulation Act was enacted. 

The Government of India nationalized 14 central banks in 1969 whose national securities were further than 49 crores.

  1. Allahabad Bank               
  2. Bank of India                          
  3. Punjab National Bank
  4. Bank of Baroda
  5. Bank of Maharashtra         
  6. Central Bank of India
  7. Canara Bank         
  8. Dena Bank
  9. Indian Overseas Bank
  10. Indian Bank
  11. United Bank                              
  12. Syndicate Bank             
  13. Union Bank of India
  14. UCO Bank

The Indian Banking strategy enormously expanded after nationalization, but the rural and weaker or unstable region of the society was not coated under the Banking system.

To solve the problem of these issues, in 1974, the Narasimham Committee proposed the institution of Regional Rural Banks (RRB). RRBs were organized to enlarge the quantity of credit to the rural area of the society on 2nd October in the year 1975. 

At present, the Indian Banking enterprise strategies of any country need to be beneficial, efficient, and effective as it is active and effective in the nation’s monetary growth.



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